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By V. Shakyor. University of Texas of the Permian Basin.

Kung fu means “skill” in Chinese buy discount kamagra gold 100mg line impotence vs infertile, and is the generic Many martial arts combine internal and external methods 100mg kamagra gold with amex erectile dysfunction treatment medscape. On the meridians there are certain Kung fu consists of thousands of hard and soft tech- points (acupoints) where qi accumulates. Yin and yang are the two separate but com- to invent a martial art that emphasized non-aggression. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1295 In Japanese, aikido means “connecting with life energy. Aikido Some schools allow students to attend as many classes also teaches internal methods of cultivating qi energy. Two to three classes per week are recom- teaches the philosophical ideals of love and harmony as mended. Some schools charge a flat fee for Judo means “gentle way” in Japanese and was de- training from beginner to expert. Many schools require veloped as an educational tool by a teacher named Jigoro students to regularly participate in competitions, and fees Kano in the 1800s. Students are required to pur- moves as holds and grappling, and teaches students how chase uniforms and equipment as well. Uniforms may to disarm attackers by applying pressure to specific sen- cost $100 or more, and protective equipment may cost sitive points on the body. Prospective martial arts students should search for These movements emphasize posture and the flow of the the style of martial arts that best meets their objectives. Although considered a martial art and Students should attend classes at various schools (dojos), consisting of fighting postures, tai chi is used more as a and should talk to students and teachers to find the right meditation and health technique. Finding a good instructor may be even more people, particularly the elderly, use tai chi daily to im- important than finding the right school. Kendo is traditional Japanese sword fighting, quired to take blows and falls as part of the learning teaching students how to use various weapons with agili- process, as well as to fight with weapons. Kendo also emphasizes dis- should search for teachers and schools who teach these cipline and ethics. People with health condi- tions and injuries should consult a physician before at- tempting a martial art, and should find a teacher familiar A martial arts session with their condition. Then, depending on the school, certain exercises will be performed to improve strength, Martial arts teachers are usually certified with the speed, and stamina. Sparring is often used, with students achievement of an advanced black belt status. Some schools require students large schools of martial arts have organizations which to stop short of striking one another, while other schools oversee and certify the granting of belt ranks. The Aikido require students to wear equipment to protect them from Association of America recognizes training programs authentic blows. The USA Karate Federation is the largest organiza- Most martial arts use the colored belt system to rank tion for certifying ranking systems and schools of karate. In general, white belts signify beginners, kung fu schools, ranking systems, and contests. Yin/Yang—Universal characteristics used to de- The roots of modern, scientific massage therapy go scribe aspects of the natural world. Ling established the Royal Central Gymnastic Institute in Sweden in 1813 to teach Resources his methods. Berkeley, physicians, brothers George and Charles Taylor, who had CA: North Atlantic, 1998. New in the United States were opened by two Swedish physi- York: Thames and Hudson, 1981. Hartwig Nissen opened the Swedish Health Institute near the Capitol in Washington, D. Frey, PhD • reduction of muscle tension and stiffness • relief of muscle spasms • greater flexibility and range of motion • increase of the ease and efficiency of movement Massage therapy • relief of stress and aide of relaxation Definition • promotion of deeper and easier breathing Massage therapy is the scientific manipulation of • improvement of the circulation of blood and movement the soft tissues of the body for the purpose of normaliz- of lymph ing those tissues and consists of manual techniques that include applying fixed or movable pressure, holding, • relief of tension-related conditions, such as headaches and/or causing movement of or to the body. In beating percus- sion, use a loose fist to gently beat the fleshy areas of the body. For example, massage can reduce anxi- 1298 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 ety, improve pulmonary function in young asthma pa- tients, reduce psycho-emotional distress in persons suf- fering from chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in- crease weight and improve motor development in prema- ture infants, and may enhance immune system function- ing. Some medical conditions that massage therapy can help are: allergies, anxiety and stress, arthritis, asthma and bronchitis, carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetitive motion injuries, chronic and temporary pain, circulatory problems, depression, digestive disorders, tension headache, insomnia, myofascial pain, sports in- juries, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

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Spasticity: Initially cheap 100mg kamagra gold overnight delivery erectile dysfunction pump hcpc, 25 mg PO qd; ↑ to effect by 25 mg to a max dose of 100 mg PO qid PRN purchase 100mg kamagra gold free shipping erectile dysfunction clinics. Malignant hyperthermia: Treatment: Continuous rapid IV push beginning at 1 mg/kg until symptoms subside or 10 mg/kg is reached. Postcrisis follow-up: 4–8 mg/kg/d in 3–4 ÷ doses for 1–3 d to prevent recurrence SUPPLIED: Caps 25, 50, 100 mg; powder for inj 20 mg/vial NOTES: Monitor ALT and AST closely Dapsone [DDS] (Avlosulfon) COMMON USES: Rx and prevention of PCP; toxoplasmosis prophylaxis; leprosy ACTIONS: Unknown; bactericidal DOSAGE: Adults. Prophylaxis of PCP 1–2 mg/kg/24h PO qd; max 100 mg/d SUPPLIED: Tabs 25 mg, 100 mg NOTES: Absorption enhanced by an acidic environment; leprosy therapy in combination with ri- fampin and other agents Daunorubicin (Daunomycin, Cerubidine) COMMON USES: Acute leukemias ACTIONS: DNA intercalating agent; inhibits topoisomerase II; generates oxygen free radicals DOSAGE: 45–60 mg/m2/d for 3 consecutive d; 25 mg/m2/wk. Numerous drug interactions Demeclocycline (Declomycin) COMMON USES: SIADH ACTIONS: Antagonizes the action of ADH on renal tubules DOSAGE: 300–600 mg PO q12h SUPPLIED: Caps 150 mg; tabs 150, 300 mg NOTES: ↓ Dose in renal failure. DI possible Desipramine (Norpramin) COMMON USES: Endogenous depression, chronic pain, and peripheral neuropathy ACTIONS: Tricyclic antidepressant; increases synaptic concentration of serotonin or norepinephrine in CNS DOSAGE: 25–200 mg/d in single or ÷ doses; usually as a single hs dose. If converting from intranasal to parenteral dosing, use 1⁄10 of the intranasal dose. Ileus: IM: 500 mg stat, repeat in 2 h, followed by doses q6h, if needed SUPPLIED: Inj; tabs 50 mg; cream NOTES: Do NOT use if obstruction is suspected Dexrazoxane (Zinecard) COMMON USES: Prevention of anthracycline-induced (doxorubicin) cardiomyopathy in metastatic breast cancer and other therapies ACTIONS: Chelates heavy metals; binds intracellular iron and prevents anthracycline-induced free- radical generation DOSAGE: 10:1 ratio of dexrazoxane to doxorubicin, 30 min prior to each dose of anthracycline SUPPLIED: Inj 10 mg/mL NOTES: Toxicity symptoms: Myelosuppression (especially leukopenia), fever, infection, stomatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, and nausea and vomiting. Mild elevations of hepatic transaminases and local pain at injection site less frequent Dextran 40 [Low Molecular Weight Dextran] (Rheomacrodex) COMMON USES: Plasma expander for adjunctive therapy in shock, prophylaxis of DVT and throm- boembolism, adjunct in peripheral vascular surgery ACTIONS: Expands plasma volume; ↓ blood viscosity DOSAGE: Shock: 10 mL/kg infused rapidly with a max dose of 20 mL/kg in the first 24 h; max dosage beyond 24 h not to exceed 10 mL/kg; discontinue after 5 d. NOT recommended for patients <18 y Diazepam (Valium, others) [CIV] COMMON USES: Anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, muscle spasm, status epilepticus, panic disorders, amnesia, and preoperative sedation ACTIONS: Benzodiazepine DOSAGE: Adults. Preop: 5–10 mg PO or IM 20–30 min before procedure; can be given IV just prior to procedure. Titrate to agitation; avoid excessive sedation; may lead to aspiration or respiratory arrest. Children: 10 mg/dose tid–qid SUPPLIED: Caps 10, 20 mg; tabs 20 mg; syrup 10 mg/5 mL; inj 10 mg/mL NOTES: Anticholinergic side effects may limit dose Didanosine [DDI] (Videx) COMMON USES: HIV infection in zidovudine-intolerant patients ACTIONS: Nucleoside antiretroviral agent DOSAGE: Adults. Dose by following table 22 22 Commonly Used Medications 527 BSA (m2) Tablets (mg) Powder (mg) 1. Dose adjust in renal impairment; do not mix powder with fruit juice or other acidic beverages Diflunisal (Dolobid) COMMON USES: Mild to moderate pain; osteoarthritis ACTIONS: NSAID DOSAGE: Pain: 500 mg PO bid. Osteoarthritis: 500–1500 mg PO in 2–3 ÷ doses SUPPLIED: Tabs 250, 500 mg NOTES: May prolong bleeding time Digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps) Used for emergency cardiac care (see Chapter 21) COMMON USES: CHF, AF and flutter, and PAT ACTIONS: Positive inotrope; increases the refractory period of the AV node DOSAGE: Adults. Preterm in- fants: Digitalization: 30 µg/kg PO or 25 µg/kg IV; give ⁄12 of dose initially, then ⁄14 of dose at 8–12-h intervals for 2 doses. Term in- fants: Digitalization: 25–35 µg/kg PO or 20–30 µg/kg IV; give 1⁄2 the dose initially, then 1⁄4 of the dose at 8–12 h. Toxicity symptoms: Nausea and vomiting, headache, fatigue, visual disturbances (yellow-green halos around lights), and cardiac arrhythmias; IM inj can be painful and has erratic absorption (See Drug Levels, Table 22–7, pages 631–634) Digoxin Immune Fab (Digibind) Used for emergency cardiac care (see Chapter 21) COMMON USES: Life-threatening digoxin intoxication ACTIONS: Antigen-binding fragments bind digoxin, rendering it inactive DOSAGE: Adults & Peds. See dosing charts provided with the drug SUPPLIED: Inj 38 mg/vial NOTES: Each vial binds ≅0. May begin cont inf of 5–15 mg/h SUPPLIED: Tabs 30, 60, 90, 120 mg; SR caps 60, 90, 120 mg; CD caps 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 mg, 420 mg; inj 5 mg/mL NOTES: Contra in sick sinus syndrome, AV block, and hypotension; Cardizem CD, Dilacor XR, and Tiazac not interchangeable Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine, other) COMMON USES: Prevention and Rx of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or vertigo of motion sickness ACTIONS: Antiemetic DOSAGE: Adults. Hypersensitivity reactions possible, but only rarely with corticosteroid preparation. Cardiomyopathy rare but dose-related; limit of 550 mg/m2 cumulative dose (400 mg/m2 if prior his- tory of mediastinal irradiation) Doxycycline (Vibramycin) COMMON USES: Broad-spectrum antibiotic, including activity against Rickettsia spp. Test for MyG: 2 mg IV in 1 min; if tolerated, give 8 mg IV; a positive test is a brief increase in strength. If no reaction occurs, give the remainder of the dose in 1-mg increments to max of 10 mg SUPPLIED: Inj 10 mg/mL NOTES: Can cause severe cholinergic effects; keep atropine available Efavirenz (Sustiva) COMMON USES: HIV infections ACTIONS: Antiretroviral agent, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor DOSAGE: Adults. Refer to product information for dosing chart SUPPLIED: Caps 50, 100, 200 mg NOTES: Take hs, may cause somnolence, vivid dreams, dizziness; may cause rash Enalapril (Vasotec) COMMON USES: HTN, CHF, and asymptomatic LVD ACTIONS: ACE inhibitor DOSAGE: Adults. In acute cardiac settings, can be given via endotracheal tube if central line not available Epoetin Alfa [Erythropoietin] (Epogen, Procrit) COMMON USES: Anemia associated with CRF, zidovudine treatment in HIV-infected patients, and patients receiving cancer chemotherapy; reduction in transfusions associated with surgery ACTIONS: Erythropoietin supplementation DOSAGE: Adults & Peds. Surgery: 300 U/kg/d for 10 d prior to surgery SUPPLIED: Inj 2000, 3000, 4000, 10,000, 20,000 U/mL NOTES: May cause HTN, headache, tachycardia, nausea, and vomiting; store in refrigerator Epoprostenol (Flolan) COMMON USES: Pulmonary HTN ACTIONS: Dilates the pulmonary and systemic arterial vascular beds; inhibits platelet aggregation DOSAGE: 4 ng/kg/min IV cont inf; make dosage adjustments based on clinical status and package insert guidelines SUPPLIED: Inj 0. Initiate treatment with 500 µg/kg load over 1 min, then 50 µg/kg/min for 4 min; if inadequate response, repeat the loading dose and follow with maintenance infusion of 100 µg/kg/min for 4 min; continue the titration process by repeating the loading dose followed by in- cremental ↑ in the maintenance dose of 50 µg/kg/min for 4 min until the desired heart rate is reached or BP decreases ; average dose 100 µg/kg/min SUPPLIED: Inj 10, 250 mg/mL NOTES: Monitor closely for hypotension; ↓ or discontinuing infusion reverses hypotension in ≅30 min Estazolam (Prosom) [C] COMMON USES: Insomnia ACTIONS: Benzodiazepine DOSAGE: 1–2 mg PO hs PRN 22 SUPPLIED: Tabs 1, 2 mg 22 Commonly Used Medications 535 Esterified Estrogens (Estratab, Menest) COMMON USES: Vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis, or kraurosis vulvae associated with menopause; female hypogonadism ACTIONS: Estrogen supplementation DOSAGE: Menopause: 0. Repeated doses NOT recommended SUPPLIED: Tabs 25, 50 mg; powder for inj 50 mg NOTES: Contra in anuria; severe side effects reported Ethambutol (Myambutol) COMMON USES: Pulmonary TB and other mycobacterial infections ACTIONS: Inhibits cellular metabolism DOSAGE: Adults & Peds >12 y. Simplex: 125–250 mg PO bid SUPPLIED: Tabs 125, 250, 500 mg Famotidine (Pepcid) COMMON USES: Short-term Rx of active duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer; maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer, hypersecretory conditions, GERD, and heartburn ACTIONS: H2-antagonist; inhibits gastric acid secretion DOSAGE: Adults.